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Abstract expressionism is the term applied to new forms of abstract art developed by American painters such as Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Willem de Kooning in the 1940s and 1950s. It is often characterised by gestural brush-strokes or mark-making, and the impression of spontaneity
Lecture & Vocabulary
S7 - DAY FOUR - Working with Studio Equipment - Light Meters
For as long as people have been taking photos, there has been a need to determine how bright a scene is. Any method of recording light can only work in a relatively narrow band without over or under exposing the image. To find the correct exposure that will record the image without over or under exposing it too much, photographers need to know how bright the scene is. An extremely talented photographer may be able to guess a near-enough exposure, but a light meter is a far more accurate and convenient way to do it.
Light meters in cameras react to how intense the light is as seen from the camera. SLRs measure the light (called metering) through the lens – TTL. They collect light that has actually passed through the camera’s lens and measure its intensity. There are problems when the scene has parts that are much brighter or darker than others, for example shadows on a sunny day. This can trick the light meter into measuring the intensity of the light incorrectly, depending on which part of the scene was illuminating the sensor.
BUILT-IN METERS: Every modern camera and Smartphone has a built-in light meter to take the proper exposure of your image. It is fully automatic and can also be set manually in more advanced amateur and professional cameras. There are a varitey of modes that can be used depending on your subject matter. here is a brief overview of the built-in meters used in SLR (Single Lens Reflex) cameras like Canon and Nikon. Modern SLR cameras use multi-point light meters, meaning that several light meters are actually scattered around the projected scene, each measuring the light intensity at that point. Very sophistocated cameras may have dozens of metering points. How much the measured intensity of the light at each point influences the final meter reading depends on the metering mode selected by the photographer.
REFLECTIVE AND INCIDENT METERING: Many professional photographers use a hand-held light meter to properly expose their photographs. These types of meters are the most accurate and can measure the two main types of lighting; Reflective and Incident. In order to accurately record any scene, whether it’s a person’s face, a piece of jewelry, or a landscape, you have to measure the amount of light that exists in a scene. There are two basic methods for measuring light: You can either take a reflected reading by measuring the light reflecting off of your subject, or you can take an incident reading by measuring the light as it falls on the subject.
Both types of metering can produce precise exposures if you know how to interpret the data that your meter supplies. Handheld reflected light meters (including built-in camera meters) read the intensity of light reflecting off the subject. Because they measure the light after it hits the subject, however, they are affected by the reflectance of the subject’s surfaces. And because most reflected readings are taken from the camera position, they generally take in a wide area that can include many different reflective surfaces or colors that can bias the meter reading. If you’re photographing a person walking on a sandy beach on a bright day, for instance, the light reflecting off of the sand will overwhelm the reading and result in an underexposed image of the person.
A reflected meter will provide different readings for, say, a white cat and a black cat—but it will provide an exposure that records both as the same middle gray. Similarly, a pristine fresh-fallen snow and a black coal field will be recorded as the same color: medium gray. A reflected meter will also record a red apple and a green apple as the same tone—even though in reality they reflect vastly different amounts of light. You can improve the accuracy of your reflected readings by placing an 18% neutral gray test card in front of the important subject areas, but that’s not always practical.
CAMERA BUILT-IN METER
TYPES OF HAND-HELD LIGHT METERS
TAKING AMBIENT READINGS
TAKING STUDIO READINGS
Video Art - Solus